Remembering Place: Black National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania

Features appear in each issue of Pennsylvania Heritage showcasing a variety of subjects from various periods and geographic locations in Pennsylvania.

The National Historic Landmarks (NHL) program was established by the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and refined by amendments to it in 1980. The federal law requires the U.S. Department of the Interior to certify the historic authenticity of NHLs based on strident criteria, including association with events, people, and great ideas; distinguishing characteristics in architectural or method of construction; integral parts of the environment; and locations that have yielded or may be likely to yield major historical or scientific information, such as archaeological sites. The 1966 act had its genesis in the New Deal-era Historic Sites Act of 1935, which required the federal government to survey and inventory historic and archaeological sites of national significance.

The National Park Service (NPS), part of the Interior Department, has recognized 2,500 NHLs throughout the United States since the program’s inception. Several dozen of these are associated with Black history, slavery, abolitionism, Underground Railroad, and civil rights. Among the most well known is the Martin Luther King Historic District in Atlanta, Georgia. The district comprises several city blocks and includes King’s boyhood home; Ebenezer Baptist Church, where he and his father, the Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. preached; a museum; conference center; the final resting places of the civil rights activist and his wife, Coretta Scott King; and related contributing historic resources. The district received federal historic designation from the U.S. Congress and President Jimmy Carter in 1980.

Lesser known, but equally as important, are properties such as the original building of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company in Durham, North Carolina. Founded in 1898, the company is significant in Black history because it was among the first in the nation to insure African Americans during the Jim Crow era, when white-owned insurance companies refused to provide coverage to them. State governments require insurance companies to obtain a license and maintain capital reserves. However, some North Carolina legislators balked at the idea that African Americans could own — much less successfully manage — an insurance company, typically the purview of white businessmen. Its board of directors, among the state’s most prominent Black leaders, convinced state regulators that such a company was worthy of a license, breaking down yet another public policy barrier. The building, constructed in 1921, became symbolic of racial solidarity and self-help among African Americans.

Several institutions where African Americans pursued higher education have been recognized as NHLs. For example, the Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Frederick Douglass Memorial Hall, and Founders Library on the campus of Howard University in Washington, D.C., have been designated as NHLs. The university, traditionally a desegregated institution, ranks high among the country’s preeminent Black colleges and educated several individuals associated with the twentieth-century civil rights movement, including Thurgood Marshall (1908–1993).

Dorchester Academy in Midway, Georgia, where the Citizenship Education Program of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLS) took root in the 1950s, was named an NHL in 2006. SCLS conducted 900 citizenship education schools and trained more than 10,000 teachers to educate Black people about their rights as citizens, including the right to vote. Educator and civil rights activist Septima Poinsette Clark (1898–1987) oversaw the Citizenship Education Program when it moved to Dorchester in 1956 from the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina.

Pennsylvania has its share of NHLs — 167 to date — which include a number of unusual and unique buildings, structures, sites, and objects, such as the Leap-the-Dips Roller Coaster at Lakemont Park in Altoona, Blair County, the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Cumberland County, and the USS Becuna, a diesel-electric submarine moored as a museum at Independence Seaport Museum in Philadelphia. More familiar landmarks include Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh’s spectacular Allegheny Courthouse designed in a robust Romanesque Revival style by architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–1886), and the Bedford Springs Hotel Historic District, Bedford, Bedford County, a popular nineteenth-century mineral springs resort of 300 acres, which President James Buchanan (1791–1868) used as his summer White House.

The Keystone State’s NHLs in Pennsylvania include several related to state and national Black history. These properties are also marked by familiar blue-and-gold state historical markers erected by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission (PHMC). Most of these landmarks are located in Philadelphia, but Montgomery and Washington counties each claim one. Although several are open to the public, others stand as testimony to Pennsylvania, American, and Black history. PHMC encourages citizens to visit and learn more about them.

 

F. Julius LeMoyne House

49 East Maiden Street, Washington

Built in 1812 in a post-colonial style of architecture by John Julius LeMoyne, a French physician who immigrated to the United States, the F. Julius LeMoyne House was a center of anti-slavery activity in western Pennsylvania. Lemoyne’s son, Francis Julius LeMoyne (1798–1879), born in Washington, Washington County, also a physician, was a leading citizen in the community and he and his family were active in the Underground Railroad. He founded the Western Pennsylvania Abolition Society in 1824. Ten years later, in 1834, he joined the Washington Anti-Slavery Society and served as its president from 1835 to 1837. The American Anti-Slavery Society commissioned him to serve as its agent in western Pennsylvania.

Southwestern Pennsylvania’s tightly knit, free Black communities helped slaves escape and developed a network that abolitionists, such as LeMoyne, joined. Surviving correspondence from the 1840s includes letters from individuals asking and thanking him for assistance in safely moving them, their families, and friends from the South. “LeMoyne represents the mainstream of antislavery activity in the United States,” NPS decreed, “and is typical of middle-class Americans of the antebellum period who became caught up in the antislavery debate.”

LeMoyne graduated from Washington College, now Washington and Jefferson College, in 1815. In the 1840s, he unsuccessfully ran for the vice presidency of the United States and three times for governor of Pennsylvania on the Abolition Party ticket. He founded Washington’s first public library, the Citizen’s Library, and cofounded the Washington Female Seminary. LeMoyne was a benefactor of the LeMoyne Normal and Commercial School, now LeMoyne-Owen College, a historically Black institution in Memphis, Tennessee, to which he contributed $20,000 in 1870, the equivalent of $335,194.29 today.

In addition to his abolitionist activities and philanthropy, LeMoyne is remembered in history for building the first crematory in the United States. He feared that decomposing bodies in local cemeteries contaminated water supplies and made residents ill. The first cremation took place on December 6, 1876. LeMoyne was the third, in 1879.

In 1997, the F. Julius LeMoyne House, which serves as the headquarters, museum, and archives of the Washington County Historical Society, was Pennsylvania’s first NHL associated with the Underground Railroad.

 

Woodmont

1622 Spring Mill Road, Gladwyne, Montgomery County

Woodmont is an impressive 73-acre country estate adorned with turrets, towers, oriels, and gargoyles in the style of a medieval French chateau. The house was modeled after George W. Vanderbilt’s Biltmore in Asheville, North Carolina, designed by Richard Morris Hunt and now touted as “America’s Largest Home.” Built in 1892 for industrialist and politician Alan Wood Jr. (1834–1902) and designed by Philadelphia architect William Lightfoot Price (1861–1916), Woodmont is an example of the substantial manor houses built during the second half of the nineteenth century by wealthy families in Philadelphia’s western suburbs known as the Main Line. The National Park Service recognized it as “a monument to the architectural aspirations of the nation’s industrial elite at the height of their power and wealth.” A founder of the Alan Wood Iron and Steel Company, Wood owned ironworks in nearby Conshohocken and in western Pennsylvania that were later absorbed by the U.S. Steel Company.

Woodmont’s association with Black history dates to 1952, when the charismatic religious leader, the Reverend M. J. Divine (1876–1965), known as Father Divine, purchased the property for his residence and the headquarters for his work in fostering integration, feeding and clothing the homeless, and providing them with spiritual guidance and social and economic support. The mansion is owned by the Palace Mission Inc., a branch of his world-renowned International Peace Mission Movement.

A charismatic African American preacher, Father Divine had great success in breaking down color lines, and fostered integration long before the national civil rights movement. He was responsible for masses of people being clothed and fed during the Great Depression. He lifted up a moral and spiritual standard and shared prosperity with those who adhered to his teachings.

In his mission work, he was aided by his second wife, Edna Rose Ritchings, known as Mother Divine. While detractors decried Father Divine as a cult leader, followers and admirers considered him an important evangelist and spiritual leader. Father Divine operated the Divine Lorraine Hotel on Broad Street near Temple University in Philadelphia where the indigent could find shelter and food.

To the west of the main house and directly on axis with his office is the Shrine to Life, where Father Divine, the founder of the Peace Mission, is entombed. The shrine consists of a cylindrical granite room capped by a pyramidal roof that relates to his spiritual beliefs and echoes the style of the residence. Built between 1966 and 1970, the shrine was designed by Philadelphia architect William Heyl Thompson. Its massive bronze doors and a pair of bronze sculptures of angels in the interior were designed by Donald De Lue (1897–1988), a well-known figurative sculptor.

Woodmont, named an NHL in 1998, features a visitor’s center that chronicles the story of the International Peace Mission Movement and Father Divine.

 

Race Street Friends Meetinghouse

Race and Cherry Streets, Philadelphia

Quakers, members of the Religious Society of Friends, engaged in spiritual endeavors, conducted business, and advocated positions on various social issues, including women’s rights, peace, and abolition, at Philadelphia’s Race Street Friends Meetinghouse. It was built in 1856 and occupied a year later. An important and outspoken abolitionist active at the meetinghouse was Lucretia Coffin Mott (1793–1880), a Quaker who has been recognized as among the most significant leaders of the nineteenth-century anti-slavery movement. She organized the Female Anti-Slavery Society, an organization equally as important as William Lloyd Garrison’s male-dominated American Anti-Slavery Society. Mott spoke at the meetinghouse on numerous occasions in an era when most of society did not encourage or engage women in public affairs.

The building became an NHL based on the significant role played by women in the Quaker religion, Mott’s membership and activism, and as a gathering place for social reform movements. It was especially noted for its role in abolitionism, women’s suffrage, the Underground Railroad, and the civil rights movements. The American Friends Service Committee, an international aid and development organization — and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize — is headquartered on the property.

Of the several meetinghouses in southeastern Pennsylvania, NPS recognized the Race Street Friends Meetinghouse as the most significant with regard to abolitionism. The historic building is the centerpiece of the campus of Friends Center, where visitors can explore exhibits, large meeting spaces where Quaker meetings are held, and a distinguished site in one of Philadelphia’s several nationally recognized historic districts.

 

Founder’s Hall, Girard College

Corinthian and Girard Avenues, Philadelphia

According to NPS, Founder’s Hall at Girard College is representative of philanthropic support for education in the United States and is a remarkable example of late Greek Revival architecture. The college was founded by Stephen Girard (1750–1831), an enormously wealthy merchant who owned or controlled large tracts of anthracite lands in northeastern Pennsylvania, assuring him lucrative lease and mining fees.

In his will dated February 16, 1830, Girard bequeathed six million dollars to the City of Philadelphia for the founding of the school to educate white males between the ages of six and eighteen. Girard left the bulk of his estate to “the Mayor, Alderman and Citizens of Philadelphia, their successors and assigns” for a number of charitable purposes, including the school. At the time of Girard’s death, Philadelphia had less than 9,900 Black inhabitants who, under existing law, had their citizenship rights decimated by regressive state legislation.

Girard College opened in January 1848 with the admission of ninety-five white male orphans. Although not part of the city’s public school system, it was administered by the Board of City Trusts on behalf of a public entity that is required to abide by federal laws. The first African American plaintiffs to seek admission to the institution were represented by Raymond Pace Alexander (1897–1974), a distinguished African American attorney and member of Philadelphia City Council. Alexander contended that Girard College presented itself as an institution that was “municipal in nature,” because of its status as a public boarding school or orphanage. He also argued that because Pennsylvania was associated with the school, the college’s practice of racial discrimination was unconstitutional.

Mayor Joseph S. Clark (1901–1990) and City Council President James A. Finnegan (1906–1958), ex officio members of the Board of City Trusts, attempted to persuade the college’s board of trustees to admit the young men and later seek a decision by the court. However, board members did not agree and maintained that the financier’s will superseded and antedated both the Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al. decision and the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. (Handed down by the United States Supreme Court on May 17, 1954, Brown v. Board of Education was a landmark decision that declared state laws establishing separate schools for African Americans and white students and denying Black children equal educational opportunities to be unconstitutional.) Lengthy litigation ensued and numerous demonstrations were held outside Girard College’s ten-feet-high stone wall, the construction of which was also stipulated by Girard in his will.

Nearly fourteen years after the Brown v. Board of Education decision, a final ruling and affirmation by the Supreme Court of the United States decreed that Stephen Girard’s will was superseded by the Brown decision. The school’s trustees were “permanently enjoined from denying admission of poor male orphans on the sole ground that they are not white, provided they are otherwise qualified for admission.” The first African American students were admitted to the school in 1968.

The college remains a private boarding school for both male and female students, grades 1 through 12; children must come from families with limited financial resources that are headed by a single parent or guardian. All students must demonstrate academic abilities and receive full scholarship. The campus encompasses 43 acres, of which Founder’s Hall is the centerpiece. The building is open to the public.

 

Mother Bethel AME Church

419 South Sixth Street, Philadelphia

NPS distinguished Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, Philadelphia as an NHL in 1973. The church was originally established in 1787 by Richard Allen (1760–1831), a former slave, Methodist preacher, and founder of the Free African Society. It served as a center of Underground Railroad activity and was — and remains — a leading social institution for Philadelphia’s African American community. Throughout American history, important leaders have attended worship at Mother Bethel, including Frederick Douglass (1818–1895), Lucretia Coffin Mott, Rosa Parks (1913–2005), and Colin Powell (1937–).

The first church building was a frame structure consecrated in 1794. That building was replaced in 1804 by a similar, but larger, structure that was again replaced in 1841. The present building was constructed in the late 1880s and consists of an impressive granite three-story front with a four-story tower in the Victorian Romanesque Revival style of architecture. Stained glass was imported from Germany to adorn the structure. Allen’s tomb is located in an interior crypt. Objects and artifacts, including Allen’s bible and pulpit, are on exhibit and a small museum traces the history of the building and its leaders and congregation.

Mother Bethel AME holds regular Sunday worship services and has an active congregation which supports spiritual and social justice initiatives in the Philadelphia area. The NPS recognized Mother Bethel for its critical contributions to the advancement of African Americans, its role in the Underground Railroad, and its association with the Reverend Richard Allen.

 

Johnson House

6306 Germantown Avenue, Philadelphia

Like Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Philadelphia’s Johnson House was a stop on the Underground Railroad. One of the largest houses in the Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia at the time of its construction, it was built between 1765 and 1768 by Dirck Jansen (1709–1794) as a gift for his son, John Johnson (1748–1810), who moved into the residence in 1770 after his marriage to Rachel Livezey ((1749–1818), daughter of Thomas Livezey, a founder of the Germantown Academy. The builder was Jacob Knorr, a master carpenter who built Cliveden for jurist Benjamin Chew (1722–1810), a nearby NHL of the same period. The Johnsons were Quakers, and fellow members of the Society of Friends were concerned because they typically disdained large and extravagant residences.

Between 1770 and 1908, five generations of the family lived in the historic house, distinctive for its dressed stone façade of Wissahickon schist (also known as Chestnut Hill mica stone). Members of the third generation were leading Philadelphia abolitionists during the 1850s and led many to freedom. Siblings Rowland (1816–1890), Israel (1818–1894), Ellwood (1823–1907), Sarah (1814–1890), and Elizabeth Johnson (1828–1905), together with their spouses, were members of abolitionist organizations, including the American Anti-Slavery Society and the Germantown Freedman’s Aid Association. They used their home and the nearby houses of relatives to harbor escaping slaves on their way to freedom. Rowland Johnson gained national prominence as a vice president of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He and Israel were founders (and later officers) of the Junior Anti-Slavery Society of Philadelphia. A first cousin, neighbor, and coworker on the Underground Railroad, William M. Dorsey (1810–1874) was a well-known anti-slavery activist.

Family tradition holds that Harriet Tubman (1820/1821– 1913), famous African American abolitionist and an agent on the Underground Railroad, brought fugitive slaves to the residence. Jenetta Johnson Reeves, a member of the family, recalled there were “so many different colored people” hidden in the back garret or attic room of the house. It seemed to her that every time she went up into the attic a different group of Blacks were hidden there.

The Johnson House was vacant from 1908 until 1917, when it was sold to the Woman’s Club of Germantown for use as its headquarters. For more than fifty years, the house was a meeting place and social center for hundreds of clubwomen, but membership began to wane. The Germantown Mennonite Historic Trust has maintained the property since 1980.

The Johnson House is among Germantown’s oldest structures and is located in Germantown’s Colonial National Historic District. The building was designated in 1997 as a National Historic Landmark because it is a representative station on the Underground Railroad and the Johnsons were among the leading abolitionists of their generation. Other than improving its structural soundness, the house has not been significantly altered since is construction in the 1760s. The Germantown Mennonite Historic Trust Inc. also administers an adjacent historic site, a 1770s Mennonite meetinghouse, which is open to the public.

 

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper House

106 Bainbridge Street, Philadelphia

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825–1911) was born of free Black parents in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1825 and, three years later, after the death of her mother, she was raised by her aunt and uncle. Her uncle William Watkins, an ardent abolitionist and AME minister, conducted the Academy for Negro Youth, which the young Harper attended. At the age of fourteen she found work as a seamstress. She published her first volume of verse, Forest Leaves, in 1845 (which has since been lost).

In 1850, she moved to Ohio, where she worked as the first female teacher at Union Seminary, established by the Ohio Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. (The school closed thirteen years later when the AME Church diverted its funds to purchase Wilberforce University.) She abandoned her career in teaching “domestic science” at Union seminary to become active in the abolition movement. In 1853, she joined the American Anti-Slavery Society and traveled and lectured extensively on its behalf. She completed her second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects, in 1854. Harper supported the Underground Railroad and was an outspoken opponent of bondage, especially in her 1872 book entitled Sketches of Southern Life. She married Fenton Harper in 1860, but their marriage was short-lived; he died four years later.

Following the American Civil War, Watkins became active in the temperance and suffrage movements. She frequently attended and spoke at meetings of the American Woman’s Suffrage Association and joined the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. In the 1880s, a new national organization emerged, Work Among Colored People, which advocated employment for Blacks, temperance, and responsibility. She became Pennsylvania’s representative to the organization and a nationally recognized figure.

Harper and her daughter Mary moved to Philadelphia in 1870, where she joined the First Unitarian Church. She spoke up for the empowerment of women and worked with national leaders Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. She continued writing, which earned her the unofficial title of “the Mother of African American Journalism.” She also helped organize, in 1894, the National Association of Colored Women and served as its vice president from 1895 until 1911. She wrote and lectured against lynching, taught Sunday school at Mother Bethel AME Church, and worked with a number of churches and organization in north Philadelphia. Both Unitarians and the AME church claim Harper as a member.

Harper’s colonial-style residence was designated an NHL in 1976. Although the building is not open to the public, a state historical marker erected in 1991 by PHMC tells her remarkable story: “author, lecturer, and social activist, Harper lived here and devoted her life to championing the rights of slaves and free Blacks. She advocated education as a way of advancement for Black Americans.”

 

John Coltrane House

1151 North 33rd Street, Philadelphia

Jazz musician and famous tenor saxophonist John W. Coltrane (1926–1967) lived in the modest row house at 1151 North 33rd Street, Philadelphia, from 1952 until his death in 1967. In the 1950s, while living in Philadelphia, his musical reputation soared. After playing in a number of bands in and outside of Philadelphia, he recorded his first solo album in 1957, Coltrane, with which his mature style first became apparent.Late in the 1950s, he worked with Thelonious Monk (1917–1982) and his quartet and then rejoined Miles Davis (1926–1991) and his band. His association with Davis led the duo to develop a style known as free jazz. This singular — but not universally acclaimed — style highlighted Coltrane as an innovative tenor saxophonist, and signaled the decline of Bebop-era jazz. During his career, he also played with Eddie Vinson (1917–1988) and John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917–1993). With Louis Armstrong (1901–1971) and Charlie Parker (1920–1955), Coltrane ranks among the most influential performing soloists in the history of jazz.

During his career, Coltrane used 1151 North 33rd Street, especially the third-floor apartment, as a periodic residence alternating with quarters in New York. In spring 1957, the second-floor rear bedroom provided refuge during Coltrane’s struggle to overcome his heroin addiction. His trademark free jazz form reached maturity in the 1960s and his contributions to music were recognized in 1965 when he was named Jazzman of the Year. His professional success was overshadowed by personal strife and, ultimately, tragedy after his 1966 divorce from his second wife, pianist Alice McCleod Coltrane (1937–2007). He died at the age of forty of liver cancer on July 16, 1967.

Constructed in the late 1890s and designated as an NHL in 1999, the John Coltrane House is representative of a finely detailed middle-class row house in late nineteenth century Philadelphia. The building, which has suffered from deferred maintenance and water damage, serves as the headquarters of the John W. Coltrane Cultural Society. The society, established in 1964, has improved and repaired the residence.

 

Henry O. Tanner Homesite

2908 Diamond Street, Philadelphia

The son of AME Church Bishop Benjamin Tucker and Sarah Miller Tanner, Pittsburgh native Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859–1937) was a renowned Black artist acclaimed by national and international organizations. New York’s National Academy of Design elected him a full academician with an associate membership. He was one of the few American artists awarded France’s coveted National Order of the Legion of Honor for his artistic contributions. While he did not fit into any of the important artistic movements, Tanner made significant contributions that include Daniel in the Lion’s Den (1896), The Raising of Lazarus (1897), and The Return from the Crucifixion (1906).

His family moved from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia in the 1870s where, as a young man, he was impressed with the bucolic nature of Fairmount Park. Thereafter, he painted landscapes and animals familiar to the area and, with his family’s encouragement, Tanner enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and studied under noted artist Thomas Eakin (1844–1916). Following the Civil War, as Blacks migrated from the South in numbers, racism and discrimination grew prevalent in cities such as Philadelphia. It was an issue which profoundly affected Tanner. “I was extremely timid,” he wrote, “and to be made to feel that I was not wanted, although in a place where I had every right to be, even months afterwards caused me sometimes weeks of pain. Every time any one of these disagreeable incidents came into my mind, my heart sank, and I was anew tortured by the thought of what I had endured, almost as much as the incident itself.” In his quest for acceptance, Tanner left the United States for France in 1891. Except for brief visits home, he remained abroad for the rest of his life.

During a brief return visit to the United States in 1893, he painted his most famous work, The Banjo Lesson, which proved to be a watershed in the portrayal of African Americans. For years, Blacks had been stereotyped as entertainers, especially minstrels, in American culture, and the image of an African American strumming a banjo was common. With The Banjo Lesson, Tanner worked against the familiar stereotype. He skillfully painted a portrait of people, not types; he represented Black subjects with dignity, not sentimentality. “Many of the artists who have represented Negro life,” wrote Tanner, “have only seen the comic, the ludicrous side of it, and have lacked sympathy with and an appreciation for the warm big heart that dwells within such a rough exterior.” He turned his attention to genre subjects of his own race, which failed to attract the notice of critics, and began creating biblical and allegorical scenes. After he returned to Paris in 1895, he became well known as a salon and religious painter but never again painted genre subjects of African Americans. Tanner was the first Black artist to win international recognition.

Tanner’s Philadelphia residence was named an NHL on May 11, 1976. The building is not open to the public.

 

For Further Reading

Blockson, Charles L. African Americans in Pennsylvania: Above Ground and Underground, An Illustrated Guide. Harrisburg: RB Books, 2001.

Burns, Deborah Stephens, and Richard J. Webster, with Candace Reed Stern. Pennsylvania Architecture: The Historic American Buildings Survey, 1933–1990. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 2000.

Hodge, Ruth E. Guide to African American Resources at the Pennsylvania State Archives. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 2000.

Switala, William J. Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2001.

U.S. Department of the Interior. Great American Landmarks Adventure. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 2008.

 

This article appears as part of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission’s annual theme for 2010, “Black History in Pennsylvania: Communities in Common.”

 

For their generosity in providing images to illustrate this feature, the editor thanks Patricia McBee, interim executive director, Friends Center, and Margaret J. Jerrido, archivist, Mother Bethel AME Church, Philadelphia; Clay Kilgore, collections manager, Washington County Historical Society, Washington, and Philip Life of Father Divine’s International Peace Mission Movement, Gladwyne.

 

Kenneth C. Wolensky is a historian for the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and contributes to the agency’s public history and historic preservation programs. He writes and speaks on the Keystone State’s political, industrial, labor, preservation, and public policy history.