Courageous Cumberland County

Features appear in each issue of Pennsylvania Heritage showcasing a variety of subjects from various periods and geographic locations in Pennsylvania.

Anxious to persuade a Scottish cleric, the Rev. Charles Nisbet, to become the first president of Dickinson Col­lege, its founding trustee Dr. Benjamin Rush wrote the Presbyterian worthy in 1784, describing central Cumberland County.

The town of Carlisle lies 120 miles to the westward of Philadel­phia and about 18 miles from the river Susquehannah. It consists of about 300 houses, most of which are built of limestone. It lies in a healthy and fertile plain bounded on the north and south by two high mountains. Within a mile of the town there winds a small river called by the Indian name of Canadoginet, which after distrib­uting fertility and wealth by watering meadows and turning a number of mills, empties itself into the Susquehannah …. The inhabitants of the town of Carlisle are in general an orderly people. Two or three general officers who have served with reputation in our army, four of five lawyers, a regular-bred physician, and a few gentlemen in trade of general knowledge and of fair characters compose the society of the town. There are three churches in this village. The largest belongs to the Presbyterians. The other two (which are very small) belong to the Episcopalians and the German Lutherans. Neither of them are provided at present with minis­ters …. A few hundred pounds may be laid out to great advantage on a farm in the neighborhood of Carlisle which will nearly maintain your family …. Lands now sell there with good improvements for £2-0-0 and £3-0-0 sterling an acre. The expense of provisions at Carlisle is I believe nearly the same as at Montrose …. We shall look for you with great impatience next fall.

Cumberland County was founded in 1750, one year after the creation of York County, making it the second Pennsyl­vania county west of the Susquehanna River. It in­cluded the picturesque Cumberland Valley, an area lying between the North or Kittattiny Mountain and South Mountain, and running south­west from the Susquehanna’s west shore to the Potomac River. Although for a brief period the county also in­cluded all other land Pennsyl­vania claimed west of the Susquehanna River, except York County, other counties were periodically carved from its jurisdiction, until it was reduced to the present five hundred and fifty-five square miles in 1820. As such, it re­mains the northeastern section of the Cumberland Valley.

Before agricultural society emerged on the Cumberland County landscape there ex­isted a time when a few men traded with the Indians, a period that is almost mythical because only a scattered his­torical record has been pre­served. Notable among these early occupants were Pierre Chartier, Tobias Hendricks, and George Croghan. They realized the potential of the area, of course, but were too individualistic to provide lead­ership in an emerging demo­cratic society.

Apprehension about Mary­land’s claim to land west of the river prompted the Proprietors of Pennsylvania in the 1730s to persuade Palatine Germans to settle in the York County area and Scots-Irish to settle in the upper Cumberland Valley. The first group to venture into Cumberland County’s territory consisted of twelve families who built sheds in the vicinity of Shippensburg in 1730. Meanwhile, Maryland’s Gov­ernor Ogle and its violent partisan leader, Thomas Cresap, pressed that colony’s claims to the limit. In re­sponse, the Penns first issued special licenses, through their agent Samuel Blunston, to a group from Lancaster County to hold land west of the river­a necessity until the land could be purchased from the Indi­ans. By a treaty of October U, 1736, with the Six Nations Indians the Proprietors satis­fied themselves that they had purchased all the land lying south of Kittattiny Mountain westward “to the setting sun.” The following year an uneasy agreement quieted the Pennsylvania-Maryland dis­pute. The creation of York County in 1749 and of Cumberland the following year solidified Pennsylvania’s western claims. Although Shippensburg existed when Cumberland County was formed, Carlisle was founded the following year as the county seat.

The first settler society began farming immediately, traded little with Indians, and was accompanied by its Pres­byterian clergy who, although troubled by an internal schism between Old Side and New Side authorities, brought with them education as well as worship. Thus preoccupied, the county was unprepared for the French supported Indian attacks that began in the fall of 1755, two months after the disastrous defeat of Gen. Edward Braddock in western Pennsylvania. The county reacted with characteristic courage and resourcefulness. Under provincial supervision four forts were built outside the settled valley as a shield. In addition, a system of stock­ades, fortified mills, and forti­fied dwellings within the settled area were hastily put in place under county authority. Fortifications, however, were only partially successful be­cause Indian war parties could simply avoid them. Offensive strikes at Indian centers by county militia and provincial forces were thwarted more often than not. A false climax to the struggle occurred in 1756, when Indians rushed one of the outer posts, Fort Granville (now the site of Lewistown), and captured it, one of the few times they ever assaulted a genuine fort. Lieut. Edward Armstrong, brother of the Carlisle area’s Scots-Trish leader John Arm­strong, died in the struggle. In September, John Armstrong commanded a party of Cumberland County volunteers on a long, hazardous expedition to destroy a Delaware-Shawnee power base at Kittanning, far to the west. He was successful, but the effect was short-lived be­cause Indian raids continued with unaltered intensity through 1757 and early 1758. Later offensive expeditions were unsuccessful because the Indians would move their villages whenever a threat appeared. Similarly, volunteer “rangers” in pursuit of Indian war parties that carried off white captives were unsuccess­ful. Three such rescue efforts were turned back by the Indi­ans on Sideling Hill. The events of late 1758 – the British recapture of the Forks of the Ohio and the western Indians’ shift away from the French – finally removed Cumberland County from danger.

Although settlers returned to their holdings, in May 1763 the Indian menace renewed. Tribes allied with the Ottawa Chief Pontiac captured or besieged the frontier posts from Detroit to Bedford. An emergency expedition of red­coats under Col. Henry Bouquet sped westward to save Fort Pitt, stopping in Carlisle to gather scouts and provisions. Under the author­ity of Gov. John Penn, Bouquet reactivated many fort sites – mostly stone con­structed mills – used during the French and Indian War. The Battle of Bushy Run and the internal collapse of Pontiac’s leadership dispelJed the 1763-1764 Indian threat, ending open warfare between the races in the Cumberland Valley.

The Paxton Boys’ revolt during the winter of 1763 did not involve settlers west of the Susquehanna, but Cumber­land County was among the areas for which the leaders of the uprising against provincial government pleaded. They wanted western legislative representation increased and western frontiers protected from Indians. But Cumberland County had its own special complaints, which erupted in the Black Boys movement of 1765. Since the days of the Pontiac conspiracy, the British Army had tried to regulate trade and entrance into terri­tory west of the Alleghenies, land as yet legally reserved for Indians. Not only did this work against settlers moving west, but it involved seizing liquor and munitions, items it was forbidden to give to the Indians. In 1765, the oppor­tunist George Croghan used his official position as an In­dian negotiator as an excuse for carrying contraband trade items to the Indians. By acci­dent Cumberland settlers learned that Croghan’s wagons carried scalping knives for the Indians, and a local group, led by James Smith, disguised themselves by blackening their faces and destroyed many of Croghan’s wagons on Sideling Hill. The redcoat garrison at Fort Loudoun arrested a few of these Black Boys, provoking a siege of the fort by their com­patriots. The crisis was re­solved only when the garrison was removed. In the years that followed there were two at­tempts by angry mobs to forc­ibly rescue prisoners from the Carlisle jail. An Indian killer, Frederick Stump, was success­fully freed, but the Black Boys’ leader James Smith personally declined the mob’s offer to spring him from imprison­ment.

A parallel existed between these activities and the early allegiance Cumberland County formed with the Revo­lutionary cause. Local histo­rians emphasize a series of resolutions for national inde­pendence made in Carlisle’s Presbyterian Church in 1774, and a conference of leaders recommending new principles of government which took place at Stoney Ridge. Cumberland County, led by Robert Whitehill, supported the radical 1776 State Constitution and the political party which rose around it. White­hill objected to Pennsylvania chartering the Bank of North America, because he believed that through it monied inter­ests would receive favored treatment at the expense of the farmer and the common man. Later, in 1788, the county was the scene of strong resistance to the ratification of the federal Constitution, during which bloody riots erupted in the county seat’s square.

During the Whiskey Rebel­lion of 1794, many in Cumber­land sympathized with the western Pennsylvania upris­ing, at least to the extent of erecting liberty poles. The awesome presence of a federal army and the appearance of President Washington, how­ever, checkmated local hostil­ity. Similarly, when war was again declared against Great Britain in 1812, petitions bear­ing twelve hundred signatures from Carlisle were presented to protest the conflict.

Cumberland County was truly divided on the slavery issue before the Civil War. There was, indeed, Under­ground Railroad activity, prov­ing that there was some sympathy for the plight of African-Americans. In 1847, a farmer, Daniel Kauffman, allowed Maryland fugitives brought to him from Chambersburg to hide in his barn, where he fed them. The slave owners sought compen­sation in Pennsylvania courts for their property loss. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court held that state courts had no jurisdiction in such a dispute, but the U.S. District Court declared Kauffman guilty and subjected him to a fine far exceeding his assets. As a precedent, this decision overruled Pennsylvania’s refusal to use its legal system to enforce the federal Fugitive Slave Act. It led to a temporary national solution, the Compromise of 1850.

The Professor John McClin­tock riot in Carlisle in 1847 proved that some citizens and many college students ob­jected to abolition. It arose when two Maryland slave owners found a runaway male, his ten year old daughter, and a woman married to a free black. They identified the three as slaves and had them arrested. The free African­-American community of Carlisle rioted, while white sympathizers, led by McClin­tock, admonished the judge in open court. During the violence the two females escaped. Meanwhile, a group of stu­dents threatened to leave Dickinson if McClintock was not dismissed, but he van­quished them with brilliant rhetoric, persuading them to respect his conscience if not his politics. As for the college, it dared not punish McClin­tock because his academic talents were superb.

On December 22, 1860, after the South’s secession had begun, a group of prominent citizens of Carlisle circulated a series of resolves meant for newspaper publication, recog­nizing the “existence of Slav­ery in our Southern Sister States as a Constitutional right.” They pledged to return fugitive slaves to their masters, advancing this position as the only way to preserve the Un­ion. Although the county was soon afterwards absorbed in the Union cause, that cause for many was not strictly synony­mous with abolition. The stubborn, radical character of early Cumberland County had come full circle.

In the first two years of its existence, Carlisle grew to sixty dwellings and its town square, still intact today, had been laid out. The county court was moved from Shippensburg to Carlisle in 1753. A courthouse, a jail, and finally a separate county office building and a town hall were added. Churches proliferated, both on and near the square. Many of the public buildings, originally of wood, were later replaced with larger structures of brick or limestone. The erection of a county office building separate from the courthouse in 1803 was clearly an administrative improvement.

The charter incorporating Carlisle as a borough in 1782 legalized the existing town meeting government. That system continued until re­placed by an elected town council in 1814. The council, in turn, was replaced by a pro­gressive and still novel institu­tion, the borough manager form of government, in 1921. With incorporation the public market days were fixed as Wednesdays and Saturdays, providing an economic routine that congealed the county’s agrarian society. In 1836, Carlisle’s public common schools were opened, and the following year – the same year that the Cumberland Valley Railroad commenced operation – a permanent struc­ture was erected in the center of Carlisle for the market. The town was seriously disturbed in March 1845, when arsonists destroyed the courthouse, the county office building, and the town hall. Unfortunately, Carlisle’s fire fighting equip­ment had been stored in the rear of the buildings, and was totally destroyed before fire­men even heard the alarm. The buildings were soon re­placed by more modern struc­tures. In the mid-1850s, the city’s progress was measured by the arrival of a running water system and gas lighting. Carlisle was maturing. A so­phisticated society developed with cliques centering around the military post, the college neighborhood, the churches, and various recreational and cultural societies. Most observ­ant travelers complimented the community, and Carlisle’s women were often noted for their comeliness.

Ironically, it was one hun­dred years, almost to the day, after the redcoat Colonel Bouquet had thrown Cumber­land County into a defensive posture against Indian attacks that Carlisle was occupied and shelled by the Confederate Army. Although often warned since 1861 of possible Confed­erate sweeps into the valley, the little city could not stop a division of Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia that Lieut. Gen. Richard Ewell led into its streets on the last weekend of June 1863. The Confederates left the following Monday, allowing the Union’s General W. B. “Baldy” Smith to enter with two brigades. Up to that point there had been no violence and townspeople exhibited a romantic curiosity about their Southern visitors. On July 1, however, Ewell – joined by Gen. J.E. B. Stuart – attempted to reoccupy Carlisle. Smith dispatched witty rejections in response to Ewell’s surrender demands, and Confederate artillery shell­ing followed, causing some damage to civilian life and property. Before the two arm­ies could confront each other for a real battle, however, the Confederates withdrew to rendezvous with Lee’s main force at Gettysburg. But for this hasty strategic decision, Carlisle might have been the scene of the three-day struggle that decided the fate of the nation.

The shelling of Carlisle was romanticized by placing mark­ers where Confederate rounds had struck, and especially by Mary Dillon’s 1906 novel, In Old Bellaire. The occupation under Ewell had involved no looting, and there had been friendly incidents; some of the Confederates were former Dickinson students. On the Sunday of the occupation, however, the Lutheran minis­ter had read a biblical passage denouncing invaders in the face of Confederates who occupied his pews. Surpris­ingly, in the 1864 election Carlisle residents cast a major­ity of their votes against Presi­dent Lincoln.

Education has always flour­ished in the county. By 1760, classical schools existed in Carlisle. Following the Ameri­can Revolution, the best of these, the Latin School, was under consideration to be upgraded to an academy when several optimists, led by Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadel­phia, persuaded the Presbyte­rian synod to found a college on the model of the College of New Jersey at Princeton. Thus began Dickinson College. Its early years were plagued by uncertainties, but its instruc­tional record was outstanding. The first real college building was completed in, 1803, burned the following year, and rebuilt with money contributed by prominent individuals from throughout the United States. Insolvency closed the college from 1829 to 1833. It was possi­ble to reopen only by transfer­ring control to the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Religious discipline from both denominations damp­ened the exuberance of colle­giate youth, and internal dissent plagued the college into the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Gradually the governing board of trustees passed to the laity, includ­ing many successful and loyal graduates, who saw to it that faculty-student rapport was revived. The college’s greatest fiscal crisis came in 1914. It was losing ground to rival colleges that had once been Dickin­son’s size but were now grow­ing into universities. A new president, James H. Morgan, deserves much of the credit for saving Dickinson.

Dickinson School of Law, an independent institution, traces its origin to 1834, when Judge John Reed established the first law school in Pennsyl­vania. Closed when he died in 1850 and reopened in 1862, it claims many distinguished graduates, including three governors of Pennsylvania.

In 1794, a traveler, Thomas Cooper, had observed that the principal market for the coun­ty’s cash crop, wheat, was Philadelphia. However, in the following thirty years Balti­more, reached by several inef­ficient turnpikes, was the county’s chief customer. With the opening of New York’s Erie Canal in 1824, the movement that led to Pennsylvania’s State Works – a canal supplemented by inclined planes, running from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh – was born. To offset Cumberland County’s isolation from this Main Line route, local leaders organized the Cumberland Valley Rail­road in 1831. It did not become a reality, however, until Charles Penrose secured Philadelphia financing by convinc­ing banker Nicholas Biddle of the route’s potential. After four difficult decades, the railroad grew very prosperous toward the end of the century. Tn addition to stimulating farm­ing, the railway attracted in­dustry. Much revenue was generated for the railway by passenger service, including elaborate excursions; in fact, the first sleeping coaches were used on the Cumberland Valley Railroad. Gradually, con­nections with other lines expanded passenger and freight service into the deep South, and profits soared in the first two decades of the twentieth century. In its eighty years of independent opera­tion the Cumberland Valley opened up the interior of the county, augmenting the older river transportation route. Tn 1919, the Cumberland Valley Railroad was purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad, and in the 1960s the lines were ab­sorbed by Conrail. Now its function is largely replaced by Interstate 81.

One of the obvious trends in the last fifty years is the population shift from the county’s center – the Carlisle area – to the several communi­ties on the west shore of the Susquehanna and their imme­diate neighbors. What made the eastern fringe of the county grow? Some communi­ties grew entirely from specific housing developments. New Cumberland, for example, was a town laid out in the early 1810s by an iron master, Jacob M. Haldeman. Employment in its borough centered around the lumber trade – saw mills and planing mills – and a flour mill. Toward the end of the century many of its residents worked in steel plants in Dauphin County. The con­struction of a trolley line in 1895 made the area much more attractive in the early twentieth century, and new home con­struction boomed.

Other communities grew simply because they were located near transportation facilities. Lemoyne was first settled in 1815 as Bridgeport, because the first bridge span­ning the broad Susquehanna River, the Camelback Bridge, reached the west shore at that point. Its greatest period of growth, however, occurred in this century; ninety-five per­cent of the buildings standing today in Lemoyne were erected after 1900.

Wormleysburg was founded at the same time, when John Wormley offered lots for sale between his ferry and the Harrisburg bridge. The com­munity, which was not incor­porated until 1908, grew prosperous in the late nine­teenth century as a center for a lumber trade that depended on the river and the nearby railroad. There was also a local demand for coal dredged from the river bottom. Often dam­aged by floods, Wormleysburg in this century has grown to the west of its original center, on higher ground.

Mechanicsburg blossomed because it was the area with access to both Simpson Ferry Road and Trindle Road. Its expressive name was adopted in 1805, although the major local employer then was Zearing’s Saddlery. Later the Cumberland Valley Railroad added a third major artery. By mid-nineteenth century it was literally a “Mechanicsburg”: it was the site of several iron foundries, machine shops, a carriage factory, and a lumber yard. The second half of the nineteenth century witnessed its greatest growth. Also lo­cated along Simpson Ferry Road was the development Daniel Shireman laid out in the first decade of the nine­teenth century, Shiremans­town, whose greatest growth occurred after 1875. A major fire in 1908 destroyed many of its structures, and population declined in the area after 1920.

The Borough of Camp Hill, lucidly described by contem­porary county historian Robert Grant Crist, grew almost en­tirely from housing develop­ments. Electric passenger railways, beginning in the 1890s, brought in many home­owners. The shift to suburban status – dependence on a nearby city’s business and industry for employment and related needs – took place in the 1920s and 1930s. Camp Hill grew rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, when the suburban home was conceived as the embodiment of the American Dream.

At the other end of the county, the development of Shippensburg, the oldest community, presents a sharp contrast. Originally a proprie­tary manor granted in 1736 to Edward Shippen, Shippens­burg developed as a “mile long” village built exclusively on one thoroughfare, King Street. It developed as the center for an agrarian hinter­land. In 1819, its businesses included thirteen taverns, six tanneries, six wagon making shops, nine dry goods stores, and nine blacksmiths. The Cumberland Valley Railroad was, of course, important to its survival. The borough also passed through a period of labor-intensive clothing manu­facture. In 1873, the expanding state public educational system chose to start a normal school there, the beginning of present-day Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania.

Carlisle Barracks, northeast of Carlisle, has had a long and distinguished history. It was an encampment area for Brit­ish forces during the French and Indian War. In 1777, the Continental Army employed captured Hessian prisoners to build five barracks buildings, and the post served as a muni­tions and supply center until the end of the Revolutionary War. When the United States Army was reborn in 1791, Carlisle Barracks again became a military base. Periods of expansion and contraction followed, the site sometimes used for the Army’s artillery, supply, recruit processing, and cavalry training functions. It was known for its cavalry school, which trained the units that fought Indians in the American West. In July 1863, the Confederate Army burned all the buildings except the post commander’s quarters. Although promptly rebuilt, the bitterness of the long, costly war brooded over the area. The garrison included veterans whose lives had not readjusted, and in March 1867, a series of riots against Carlisle civilians occurred. Since In­dian wars had largely become a thing of the past, the garri­son was discontinued in 1871.

The famous Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879 and administered by the Indian Bureau of the Department of Interior, continued until closed by the federal government in 1918. The school was the life’s work of Richard H. Pratt, a veteran of campaigns against the Cheyenne and Comanche Indians, who had developed ideas of reform when assigned to control a group of impris­oned, violent warriors. At the school he supervised the in­struction of selected Indian students from western tribes, believing that they could even­tually succeed in mainstream American society. The curricu­lum, rigorous and highly mor­alistic, caused many students to drop out, but by the turn of the century Pratt had suc­ceeded in finding opportuni­ties for graduates in factories and businesses. Indiscreetly insulting the Indian Bureau in a speech he delivered in 1904 led to Pratt’s dismissal, and with his departure the nature of the school changed. Suc­ceeding superintendents were satisfied if the students merely returned to farming portions of Indian reservation land, trained largely in day-to-day home economics. However, the school in the post-Pratt period became famous for its athletic achievements, best remembered for the deeds of the astonishing Jim Thorpe. Although the unfolding trag­edy of Thorpe’s later life seems symbolic of the fading of Pratt’s ideal, who has not thrilled to the playing field exploits of that descendant of the continent’s aboriginal population?

After two years of use as a general hospital for World War I casualties, the post became the Army’s Medical Field Serv­ice School, and military per­sonnel were trained to handle future Army health problems, including many not directly related to combat. At the out­break of World War II, the convenient location of the Barracks led to its hosting a number of Army training programs, including the Chap­lains’ Corps, military intelligence units, and an information school. In 1951, the Army War College, an institution founded in 1903 but suspended between 1940 and 1950, was moved to the Bar­racks. Today, its student body consists of well qualified offi­cers, up to the rank of lieutenant colonel, who show promise of further advance in the command hierarchy.

In the pattern of many Pennsylvania counties that began with a simple agricul­tural economy, Cumberland County experienced a period of profitable iron production but did not make the transition to steel. In the mid-nineteenth century, iron was a major product at Mount Holly Springs, Carlisle Iron Works, and Pine Grove Furnace. But the steel industry of south central Pennsylvania devel­oped across the river at Steelton in Dauphin County.

Also in the pattern of other counties, Cumberland’s nine­teenth century economy was much involved with black­smith shops, distilleries, and carriage and furniture factor­ies. However, this county differed from others because it had a “golden age” of light manufacturing, lasting from about 1910 to 1960. The “Edi­son of the Cumberland Valley,” Daniel Drawbaugh (who died in 1911), although financially a failure, typified Cumberland County’s courage to try to change the material world. Backed at first by money from friends such as the two Camp Hill real estate developers J. Addison Moore and Henry N. Bowman, Drawbaugh pro­duced many inventions in prototype in his shop at Eberly Mills. At his death he held seventy-one patents. In 1880, supported by the People’s Telephone Company, Draw­baugh sued against the Bell Telephone Company’s patent, which derived from Alexander Graham Bell. Drawbaugh alleged that at Eberly Mills he had operated a practical tele­phone many years before Bell. At various levels the suit lasted eight years, and the final accu­mulation of witnesses’ state­ments, arguments, briefs, and related papers upon which the U.S. Supreme Court passed judgment in 1888 exceeded that of any previous law suit. In the end he lost because the judges discredited the recollec­tions of his witnesses. The Count characterized Daniel Drawbaugh as an ingenious inventor or mechanic who had not understood the principles of electricity when he had improvised his “teacup” trans­mitter and “mustard can” receiver – even though these curious items electrically trans­mitted the clear human voice!

Ingenuity was characteristic of the golden age of light man­ufacturing. The Carlisle Gar­ment Company, a spinoff of the J. W. Plank Department Store, claimed to have pro­duced the first ready-to-wear women’s clothing in 1890, motivated by a need to keep department store workers busy in the slack winter sea­son. The Carlisle Tire and Rubber Company pioneered the production of molded automobile inner tubes, and was the first to use refrigerated water as a coolant in the mold­ing process. Eaton-Dikeman Paper Company of Mount Holly Springs, which came to the area when its Lee, Massa­chusetts, plant burned in 1932, had for many years a virtual monopoly in the production of filter paper. C. H. Masland and Sons, carpet manufactur­ers who moved to Carlisle from Philadelphia and New Jersey, grew to national prominence by developing a process for heavy-press dying woven carpets, eliminating dying at the pre-woven, fabric stage. P. Reynolds Hoffman Company of Carlisle developed from its founder’s skill in sawing quartz crystals for industrial use, especially for radios. Later, the Hoffman planetary lapping machine was devel­oped, which became the standard for precision in the industry.

Today, Cumberland Coun­ty’s manufacturing sector has nearly disappeared. The county is sixty-second among the Commonwealth’s sixty­-seven counties in percentage of population employed in manufacturing. Nevertheless, Cumberland County is a wonderful place to live. The educa­tional level is very high. In the mid-1980s it claimed the state’s lowest unemployment rate. It has a low death rate and rela­tively few elderly citizens. It boasts of a distinctly high percent of residents employed at the management level, as well as a great number of gov­ernment workers. These char­acteristics reflect late twentieth century social developments, but the agricultural sector remains strong. Wheat, hogs, and dairy products are abun­dant, and Cumberland is the sixteenth Pennsylvania county in value of gross receipts from significantly productive farms – farms with annual sales in excess of forty thou­sand dollars.

The courage that led Cumberland County’s found­ers to stand as Pennsylvania’s bulwark against terrors on the western frontier has been proudly reflected in the indi­vidualism and integrity of its subsequent generations.

 

For Further Reading

Burkhart, William H. Cumber­land Valley Chronicles – A Bi­centennial History. Shippensburg, Pa.: News-Chronicle Co., 1976.

____. The Shippensburg Story, 1730-1970. Shippensburg, Pa.: News-Chronicle Co., 1970.

Crist, Robert G. Camp Hill, A History. Camp Hill, Pa.: The Author, 1984.

Flower, Milton E. and Lenore E. Flower. This Is Carlisle: A History of a Pennsylvania Town. Harrisburg, Pa.: J. Horace McFarland Co., 1944.

Harder, Warren J. Daniel Draw­baugh, the Edison of the Cumberland Valley. Philadel­phia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960.

Sellers, Charles Coleman. Dickinson College: A History. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1973.

Two Hundred Years in Cumberland County. Harrisburg, Pa.: Telegraph Press, 1951.

Van Dolsen, Nancy. Cumberland County: An Architectural Survey. Ephrata, Pa.: Science Press, 1990.

Westhaeffer, Paul J. History of the Cumberland Valley Rail­road, 1831-1919. Washington, D. C.: National Railway Histori­cal Society, 1978.

Wi11g, Conway P, et al. History of Cumberland County, Penn­sylvania, with Illustrations. Carlisle, Pa.: Herald Printing Co., 1879.

 

Louis M. Waddell has served as an associate historian of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum’s Division of History since 1973, where his principal work has been in publications. He received his bachelor of arts degree from Princeton University, his master of arts degree from New York University, and his doctorate from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the editor of the multi-volume documentary series, The Papers of Henry Bouquet. His writings include “Historical Sketch of Greene County,” which appeared in the December 1976 issue of this maga­zine. He was recently appointed associate editor of Pennsylvania Heritage.